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EN 13236:2010 标准内容
Product Marking Requirements – Superabrasives

EN132362001超硬磨料磨具安全要求

1前言
作者所在企业为生产金刚石工具的专业工厂,产品主要销往欧洲、美洲等地,
因此,本公司自2002年起,即按照欧洲标准EN13236(2001)Safety Requiremante for Superabrasives(超硬磨具的安全要求,以下简称标准)的要求组织生产、检验产品。对于标准的正确理解,是执行标准的重要前提。
作者在执行标准时,深感其中有一些亟需弄清楚的问题,值得大家商讨。
作者认为作为金刚石工具的生产大国,而该标准又是主要的金刚石工具的国际标准,给该标准以一个合理的解释,供金刚石工具业界的同行们相互交流,共同探讨对该标准的理解是十分有必要的。
下面我们愿就标准中的若干问题和金刚石工具界的同行们探讨。
2关于尺寸的定义标准中3.5超硬磨具的尺寸代号表四中,X代表超硬磨料部分的深度,X1表示无支撑深度部分。
由于标准中无相应图例说明,我们可以参照之前由德国金属同业公会铁和金属专业委员会(BGZ)颁发,在金刚石工具界一直执行的ZHI/676《金刚石或氮化硼磨具的检验方法及原则》及ZHI/675《金刚石或氮化硼磨具的样品检验和发证的实施准则》,这两个文件与标准


Requirements for specific products according to EN 13236:2010 (published 11-2010)
The provisions of this European Standard shall not be mandatory to superabrasive products
manufactured the first 12 months after publication of this European Standard. The standards
EN 13236:2001 and EN 13236/A1:2005 are applicable until 30 November 2011.
Grinding wheels Diamond
saws
Mounted
points
Diamond
wires
Other
vitrified other products
Trade name X X X X X X
Traceability code X X X X X X
Dimensions (mm) X X X X X X
MOS (rpm or 1/min) X X X X X
MOS (m/s) X X X X
Colour stripe (optional) X
Direction of run X X
Restrictions to use X X X X X
Declaration of conformity X X X X X X
oSa Logo X X X X X X
Private label number Must be used on all private label products bearing the oSa logo
Trade name
Must bear one of the following:
· Company name
· Registered brand name
· Private company’s name
· Private company’s registered brand name
Traceability code number
Although EN 13236 allows the code to be on the product or package, oSa will still require it to
be on the product. It can be either:
· Order number
· Manufacturing batch number
· Despatch or shipping number
· Date of manufacture
Dimensions
· Should state diameter, thickness & bore in mm, e.g.: 300 x 20 x 50.80 mm
· ISO Standard dimensions should be used wherever the application permits (ISO 22917)
· Ensure correct conversion of imperial bore sizes, e.g.: 7/8” is 22.23 mm
not 22.2 mm or 22 mm
MOS– Maximum operating speed
· Should specify the maximum possible speed that the wheel can be safely used at
· This is the speed that is used to derive the test requirements
· Should be taken from the table in Annex D of EN 13236:2001 (Annex E of EN 13236:2010)
Colour stripe
See EN 13236, Annex B
Direction of run
Wheels should be marked with a direction of run arrow
Restrictions to use
Grinding wheels:
· RE1 – Not permitted for hand-held or manually-guided grinding
· RE3 – Not permitted for wet grinding
· RE4 – Only permitted for totally enclosed working area
Cutting-off wheels (diamond saws):
· RE2 – Not permitted for hand-held cutting-off
· RE3 – Not permitted for wet cutting-off
· RE4 – Only permitted for totally enclosed working area
· RE10 – Only permitted for wet cutting-off
· RE11 – Not permitted for hand-held or manually guided cutting-off
This restriction only  applies to abrasive  products not for use on handheld
machines but  capable of being  mounted on such   machines
Abrasive product  only suitable for dry   grinding
Abrasive product   only for use on   stationary machines  the guarding of  which is accepted
as totally enclosed   working area
Abrasive product  only for use on   cutting-off. This  restriction only   applies to abrasive
products for use on   hand-held machines
Abrasive product  only suitable for wet   cutting
Colour of pictograms according to ISO 3864-2 wherever possible
Declaration of conformity
All products should be marked: EN 13236
oSa Logo
All products should be marked:
By marking oSa on the product,
the manufacturer is confirming that it meets the requirements of EN 13236 and the additional
requirements stipulated in the Technical Annex of oSa
Private label number
All products bearing the oSa logo on private label products must also bear the five-digit oSa
private label number.
Execution of the marking
· Must be legible to the naked eye
· Must be indelible
· All marking must appear on the product itself, either:
o Etched, engraved, embossed or laser cut onto the surface (for superabrasive products
with metal blanks)
o Stamped or punched onto the surface
o Sprayed, stencilled or printed onto the surface
o Printed on a fixed label
· Products with diameter > 80 mm:
When it is not possible to give all specified information on the superabrasive product, a
blotter or label, the product itself shall at least be marked with the maximum operating
speed in so far as the surface and shape of the product permits.
· Products with diameter £ 80 mm:
The specified information can appear on a label which accompanies the superabrasive up
to its final point of use.
o If package contains < 1000 identical products: 1 label per 25 products
o If package contains over 1000 identical products: 1 label per 100 products
The specified information can appear on a label fixed to the smallest packaging unit.
List of major changes in the revised edition of EN 13236:2010:
· The new edition will supersede EN 13236:2001.
· The provisions of this European Standard shall not be mandatory to superabrasive
products manufactured the first 12 months after publication of this European Standard.
· Significant changes against EN 13236:2001 are as follows:
a) The standard was technically and editorially revised and partly adapted to EN
12413:2007 about bonded abrasive products and EN 13743:2009 about coated
abrasive products;
b) The term "burst speed factor" was included in Table 2, Table 5, Table 7 and Table
12;
c) In the requirements it is now distinguished between precision and non-precision
cutting-off wheels;
d) New restrictions to cuts and openings in the metal blank have been introduced (new
clause 5.3.5.3 "Design and position of cuts and openings in the metal blank of
cutting-off wheels for hand-held applications")
e) Restrictions to segment height and bending strength values have been revised;
f) Requirements for reconditioned non-precision cutting-off wheels were included in
new 5.3.6.4 and new normative Annex D;
g) Clause 6 was shortened to verification of safety requirements. The scope of
inspection and testing has been deleted because it is the responsibility of the
manufacturer to put in place respective test procedures that give them the confidence
that all safety requirements defined in this standard are respected.
h) The requirements for colour code stripes were deleted in Annex A and are now
presented in new Annex B;
i) Table A.3 and Table A.4 about restrictions for use were combined to one table and
thereby adapted to EN 12413 and EN 13743;
j) Clause A.2 about execution of the marking was simplified;
k) Annex B about blotters was deleted and part of its content was included in 5.2.5;
l) Annex C about mounted points was completely revised and shortened;
m) Annex D with the speed conversion table (now Annex E) was editorially revised and
maximum operating speeds above 320 m/s were deleted;
n) Annex E about shapes and dimensions of grinding wheels and cutting-off wheels had
become obsolete with publication of ISO 6104 and was therefore deleted;
o) Annex F about grain sizes and concentration for diamond and cubic boron nitride had
become obsolete with publication of ISO 6106 and was therefore deleted.
En13236 是CEN 发布的针对超硬材料工具安全性能的一套安全标准,其中对影响超硬材料安全性能的各项指标进行了详细的描述。自发布以来, En13236标准得到欧美各主要超硬材料工具制造商的认同,并得以推广。到目前,欧美各大工具商,包括亚洲日本和韩国等国的工具商都已采用此标准,并在此产品上已标上En13236 标示。由此可见,En13236 以基本在全球推广开来,并逐渐成为超硬材料工具的国际标准。中国的金刚石工具要想进入国际主流市场,势必要满足En13236 的要求。因此,了解En13236 的各项指标对中国超硬材料工具行业成为迫切需要。本文将以金刚石圆锯片为例阐述En13236 标准,此产品也是中国超硬材料工具出口的主要产品。
2  En13236 标准概述En13236 针对树脂、金属、陶瓷结合剂的超硬材料
工具和电镀等超硬材料工具领域内涉及安全性能的各方面进行了定义和要求,同时对砂轮、磨轮、锯片和绳锯等超硬材料工具在安全性能方面的要求分别进行了
阐述。主要有以下几方面:

3 工具和使用设备定义     缺陷和损坏定义      安全性能指标及要求
3检验方法、项目、比例等规范   3 标识规范
3  En13236 对金刚石圆锯片的要求
311  速度安全系数的要求
金刚石锯片高速旋转时产生的离心力可能导致锯片产生永久变形而引起外径增大,也可能导致刀头变形破裂或脱落。En13236 对此提出的安全系数如表1所示。其中,最高转速Vs 为锯片的最大允许转速,最小破裂转速Vbrmin 为锯片发生破裂或刀头脱落现象
的最小允许速度。安全系数S = (VbrPVs) 2 ,其中安全系数根据切机类型及操作方式不同而有差别。在最小破裂转速Vbrmin 下,锯片外径增大量不得超过IT11级。
312  基体的要求
对于切割沥青、混凝土、天然石材和人造石的金刚石圆锯片,相应于锯片规格对钢基体厚度有相应要求。干切用金刚石圆锯片基体厚度的要求见表2。
 En13236 提出的安全系数
切机形式切割方式   最大转速 Vs (mPs)    安全系数S   最小破裂速度Vbr min(mPs)
固定切割式切机
机械导轨进给
< 63 2
63 2 90
80 2 113
100 2 141
工作区域
封闭的机
械导轨
进给
< 125 1175 —
125 1175 165
140 1175 185
160 1175 212
180 1175 238
200 1175 265
固定和移
动式切机
手动进给
< 80
80
100
315
315
315

150
188
手持式切机手持
< 80
80
100
315
315
315

150
188
表2  干切用金刚石圆锯片基体厚度的要求
切机类型基体外径&ordf; 最小厚度mm
手持锯
&ordf;≤115
115 < &ordf;≤200
200 < &ordf;≤230
≥017
≥019
≥112
手持式和固定式
230 < &ordf;≤300
300 < &ordf;≤400
≥112
≥116
固定式和移动式
400 < &ordf;≤500
500 < &ordf;≤600
600 < &ordf;≤700
700 < &ordf;≤900
900 < &ordf;≤1200
1200 < &ordf;≤1600
≥210
≥215
≥310
≥315
≥417
≥515
4  En13236 对中国金刚石工具行业的影响
目前中国金刚石工具出口以锯片和钻头为主,其中锯片以烧结锯片为主,以及一部分焊接锯片,面向市场主要为DIY市场和少量专业市场。从目前发展趋势看,世界专业金刚石工具的生产将逐渐向劳动力和原材料相对便宜的中国转移,我国在中高档和专业锯片的生产制造将迎来一个高速增长时期,中国的金刚石工具制造企业将面临前所未有的发展机遇。专业市场对工具的安全性能有严格的要求,中国的金刚石工具要进入国际主流市场,必须提高所生产工具的安全性能指标,满足国际规范的安全性能。En13236 作为行业内被广泛使用的安全标准,对我国金刚石工具行业有着重要的参考意义。
合强度的要求难度较大。因此在刀头配方设计,原材
料的选用上需充分考虑强度的要求,同时采用新工艺
以及提高控制精度给刀头强度以充分保障。在实际操
作中,通过采用超细预合金粉末、金刚石包钴工艺和真
空烧结等工艺都能显著提高刀头强度。
随着我国金刚石工具业竞争力的不断增强,
EN13236 标准对我国金刚石工具进入国际主流市场,
以及对提升我国金刚石工具行业技术水平都有积极意
义。
5  结论
En13236 标准时目前最广泛采用的金刚石工具的安全检验标准。
中国金刚石工具要进入国际主流专业市场需满足En13236 标准。
现有产品经过适当调整,完全可以满足En13236标准的要求。
从安泰钢研的经验来看,过去我们把切割性能放在第一位,往往导致有时为追求切割性能而牺牲部分安全性能。自安泰钢研产品大规模进入国际主流市场以来,发现国外大工具商把安全性能放在首要位置,并严格按照EN13236 标准要求验收。为此,我们进行了大量的调整工作,使绝大部分产品达到了EN13236 标准的要求。从标准要求来看,刀头强度、刀头和基体结
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